A color revolution, or nonviolent revolution is one of the modern, mostly nonviolent, popular revolutions, which have overthrown authoritarian governments. Color revolutions succeeded in the late 20th Century and early 21st Century in Philippines, Chile, Czechoslovakia, East Germany, Indonesia, Serbia, Ukraine, Georgia, Tunisia and Egypt. Regimes which are dependent on democratic regimes, as Iran under the Shah or Egypt under Mubarak were on the United States, may have difficulty violently suppressing nonviolent civil protests with revolutionary potential due to fear of the reaction of democratic regimes or international public opinion which might result. Thus the pretense of democratic government and of its citizens having civil rights works against the authoritarian regime making them more vulnerable than they would be if they could immediately apply overwhelming force to any political opposition which shows itself.
Notes and references
- "Why unarmed revolutions topple some dictators but not others" article by Daniel P. Ritter in The Washington Post, May 13, 2016
- Daniel Ritter, The Iron Cage of Liberalism: International Politics and Unarmed Revolutions in the Middle East and North Africa, Oxford University Press (February 18, 2015), hardcover, ISBN-10: 0199658323 ISBN-13: 978-0199658329
- Sharon Erickson Nepstad, Nonviolent Revolutions: Civil Resistance in the Late 20th Century, Oxford University Press (July 28, 2011), hardcover, 200 pages ISBN-10: 0199778205 ISBN-13: 978-0199778201 trade paperback and Kindle editions are also available.