File:100 zl r 1979.jpg

Proletariat celebrated on the 100 banknote of 1974 in the People's Republic of Poland

Proletariat is the name used to refer to three Polish political parties:

  • The First Proletariat (International Social Revolutionary Party "Proletariat" (Polish: po: Międzynarodowa Socjalno-Rewolucyjna Partia "Proletariat") (1882–1886)), also called the Great Proletariat.
  • The Second Proletariat (Social Revolutionary Party "Proletariat" (Polish: po: Socjalno-Rewolucyjna Partia "Proletariat") (1888–1893)), also called the Small Proletariat.
  • The Third Proletariat (Polish Socialist Party "Proletariat" (Polish: po: Polska Partia Socjalistyczna "Proletariat") (1900–1909)).

First Proletariat

The First Proletariat (or Great Proletariat) was the first Polish socialist party. It was founded in 1882 by Ludwik Waryński from members of Warsaw socialist circles.

At a meeting in Vilna in 1883, The First Proletariat joined with parties from other cites in creating a central committee composed of Waryński, Stanisław Kunicki, Tadeusz Rechniewski, and others. Other important party activists were Edmund Płoski, Maria Bohuszewiczówna, Marian Stefan Ulrych, Aleksandra Jentysówna, and Henryk Dulęba.

In March 1884 the First Proletariat formed an alliance with the People's Will and embraced political and economic terror as a means to combat autocracy. The party supported proletarian internationalism and opposed the Polish independence movement.

In 1883-1884 several of the chief activists were arrested and the party lost much of its power. In July 1886 the party was crushed as many of its remaining members were imprisoned or executed. The First Proletariat disbanded that year, but many of its traditions would be continued by the Second Proletariat.

Second Proletariat

The Second Proletariat (or Small Proletariat) was founded in 1888 by merging the remaining organization of the First Proletarian (led by Marcin Kaspshak) and a student group led by Ludwig Kulchytskyy.

The Second Proletariat also embraced terror as means to combat autocracy. Representatives of the Second Proletariata participated in the founding congress of the Second International in Paris in 1889. In 1891 a faction emerged in the party which opposed the tactics of terror. In 1893 the party merged with three other parties to create the Polish Socialist Party.

Third Proletariat

The Third Proletariat was created in 1900 as a splinter group of the Polish Socialist Party. It was led by Ludwig Kulchytskyy and, beset by Tsarist repression, ceased operations in 1909.


  • Орехов А. М. Социал-демократическое движение в России и польские революционеры. Orekhov A. Social Democratic movement in Russia and the Polish revolutionaries. 1887—1893 гг. 1887–1893 years. М., 1973 MA, 1973
  • Baumgarten L. Dzieje Wielkiego Proletariatu. Baumgarten L. Dzieje Wielkiego Proletariatu. Warszawa 1966 Warszawa 1966
  • Targalski J. Geneza Polskiej Partii Socjalistycznej Proletariat. Targalski J. Geneza Polskiej Partii Socjalistycznej Proletariat. «Z pola walki», 1973, № 2—3. «Z pola walki», 1973, № 2-3.
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